Under other risks we include Emerging risks, strategic risks, reputational risks and liquidity risks. Reputational risks are categorised as non-financial risks.
The hallmark of emerging risks is that the content of such risks cannot as yet be reliably assessed – especially on the underwriting side with respect to our treaty portfolio. Such risks evolve gradually from weak signals to unmistakable tendencies. It is therefore vital to detect these risks at an early stage and then determine their relevance. For the purpose of early detection we have developed an efficient process that spans divisions and lines of business and we have ensured its linkage to risk management. Operational implementation is handled by an expert working group assembled specially for this task. The analyses performed by this working group are used Group-wide in order to pinpoint any necessary measures (e. g. the implementation of contractual exclusions or the development of new reinsurance products). By way of example, risks associated with possible climate change are analysed by this working group. Global warming would affect not only natural perils, but also human health, the world economy, the agricultural sector and much more besides. These problematic issues may also have implications for our treaty portfolio – in the form of not just risks but also opportunities, such as increased demand for reinsurance products. Further examples of emerging risks include pandemics (spread of disease across multiple countries or continents), supply chain risks and autonomous machines.
Strategic risks derive from a possible imbalance between the corporate strategy of the Hannover Re Group and the constantly changing general business environment. Such an imbalance might be caused, for example, by incorrect strategic policy decisions, a failure to consistently implement the defined strategies and business plans or an incorrect allocation of resources. We therefore regularly review our corporate strategy in a multi-step procedure and adjust our processes and the resulting guidelines as and when required. We have defined performance criteria and indicators for operational implementation of the strategic principles and objectives; these are authoritative when it comes to determining fulfilment of the various targets. With the “Strategy Cockpit” the Executive Board and responsible managers have at their disposal a strategy tool that assists them with the planning, elaboration and management of strategic objectives and measures and safeguards their overall perspective on the company and its strategic risks. The process for the management of strategic risks continues to be assessed annually as part of the monitoring of business process risks. For more information on the topic of strategy please see the section “Non-financial information statement”.
Reputational risks refer to the risk that the trust put in our company by clients, shareholders, employees or the public at large may be damaged. This risk has the potential to jeopardise the business foundation of the Hannover Re Group. A good corporate reputation is therefore an indispensable prerequisite for our core business as a reinsurer. Reputational risks may arise out of all business activities conducted by the Hannover Re Group. Reputational damage may be caused, inter alia, by a data mishap that becomes public knowledge or financial difficulties on account of an underwriting risk. In addition to the risk identification methods already described, we use a number of different techniques for risk minimisation, such as our defined communication channels (e. g. Crisis Communication Guideline), a professional approach to corporate communications, tried and tested processes for specific crisis scenarios as well as our established Code of Conduct. The reputational risk also relates to our social responsibility and is thus a control point in the context of our sustainability efforts.
The liquidity risk refers to the risk of being unable to meet our financial obligations when they become due. The liquidity risk consists of the refinancing risk (necessary cash could not be obtained or could only be obtained at increased costs) and the market liquidity risk (financial market transactions could only be completed at a poorer price than expected due to a lack of market liquidity). Core elements of the liquidity management of our investments are, in the first place, management of the maturity structure of our investments on the basis of the planned payment profiles arising out of our technical liabilities and, secondly, regular liquidity planning as well as the asset structure of the investments. Above and beyond the foreseeable payments, unexpected and exceptionally large payments may pose a threat to liquidity. In reinsurance business, however, significant events (major losses) are normally paid out after a lead time that can be reliably planned. As part of our liquidity management we have nevertheless defined asset holdings that have proven to be highly liquid – even in times of financial stress such as the 2008 financial crisis. Our holdings of unrestricted German, UK and US government bonds as well as cash during the year under review were larger than possible disbursements for assumed extreme events, which means that our liquidity is assured even in the unlikely case of financial crises coinciding with an extreme event that needs to be paid out quickly. The liquid asset reserve stood at EUR 4.9 billion as at the balance sheet date. In addition, we manage the liquidity of the portfolio by checking on each trading day the liquidity of the instruments contained therein. These measures serve to effectively reduce the liquidity risk.
Regular quarterly risk reporting to the Risk Committee and the Executive Board takes place with regard to the other risks. Risks are also evaluated as part of the reporting.
As part of the risk management process we also take into account the impacts on the operational and reputational risks of aspects of environmental management, employee matters, social matters, respect for human rights and the combating of corruption and bribery, as required by the CSR Directive Implementation Act in accordance with § 289b and c German Commercial Code (HGB) and § 315c German Commercial Code (HGB).